Orkney - Norse heritage and more
I have no special Viking axe to grind, but amongst Scotland islands I really like Orkney because the local folk seem to genuinely want you to enjoy what the place has to offer (and may tell you in an Orcadian accent that is somehow just melodic to the ear). There are three all but inescapable themes for a Scottish islands Orkney visit – wildlife, prehistory, and the more recent history of Scapa Flow as a wartime fleet anchorage.
(Pictured) There's always a sense of excitement and a buzz amongst the visitors on the deck of the Scrabster to Stromness ferry, as it passes the island of Hoy. (Rackwick Bay, Hoy, is pictured further down the page.) Hoy is much more rugged than the other mostly low green islands of the Orkney archipelago.
What to see on Orkney
Take note – in summary - on Orkney you have to see Skara Brae and Maes Howe – the Neolithic chart-toppers! The Ring of Brodgar and the Standing Stones at Stenness also usually end up on everyone’s list. And you also should see, in Kirkwall, St Magnus Cathedral – though you get a fine view of it from the ruins of the Earl’s Palace, just opposite it. All of this means you should stroll around Kirkwall too. (Good shops!) Same applies to Stromness, where the museum is interesting – good on the scuttling of the German Fleet in Scapa Flow in 1919. Amongst the islands, we also think that Rousay is an Orkney must-see.
Where is Orkney?
Look at this map– Orkney is pretty much at the top of mainland Scotland. The archipelago is connected via Scrabster, Gills Bay and Aberdeen by good ferry services. On this page we mention the Scrabster to Stromness ferry. Elsewhere on site (links below) we feature the Gills Bay to St Margaret's Hope option. (We like!) Sorry about Shetland appearing right-hand side of Orkney, when it lies well to the north in reality. It’s a map-maker’s convention. Or it’s done to annoy the folk in Shetland.
What else is there on Orkney? Well, the cliffs at Yesnaby (pictured), north of Stromness, also seem to be on the ‘milk run’ – the squares of old concrete where you park are relics of war-time gun sites. However, if you really want rugged cliffs – to be honest, totally scary ones! – then you’ll find Marwick Head bracing – seabird colony on horrifying vertical rock – and there’s a bleak memorial to WWI British leader Lord Kitchener, who lost his life offshore here when HMS Hampshire, taking him to negotiations in Russia, hit a mine and sank in June 1916. (You knew that Kitchener invented the idea of a concentration camp, during the Boer War?)
More than on any other of Scotland's islands, what you’ll constantly hear about Orkney is the fact that it has a greater concentration of prehistoric and early sites than anywhere else in Europe. It’s easy to set up your own little tour round the main island (mainland, as they call it) taking in the Brough of Birsay (watch the tide times!) and the Broch of Gurness as well.
The old established town of Stromness (pictured) was once the last watering-place for the crews of ships, such as whalers, trading vessels and Arctic explorers, before they set sail for the polar regions. The Stromness Museum here is fascinating, as is the award-winning Pier Arts Centre.
Island of Hoy
(Pictured) This is the view from the ferry of the most spectacular part of the coastline of the Orkney island of Hoy. If you visit Hoy, then many visitors take a look at the top of the Old Man of Hoy, the offshore sea-stack, from the adjacent cliff. There is a path from Rackwick Bay on Hoy. (On the way, you may get dive-bombed by great skuas, also called bonxies, a large and piratical type of gull, during their breeding season. You will survive this.) But if you think the 450ft (137m) stack is impressive, then see how - in the picture - the ground rises to the cliffs of St John's Head, at 1260ft (384m) one of the highest vertical cliffs in Britain. Note St John's to the left of centre, Old Man in the distance, right.
As for the other islands of the archipelago, Hoy can (just about) be day-tripped by car-ferry, though you’ll have to walk briskly if you want to park at Rackwick Bay and take the path up to the ‘top view’ of the iconic rock stack of the Old Man of Hoy and then take in the fascinating Scapa Flow Visitor Centre and Museum at Lyness. (You should probably stay over!) Among Scotland's islands, the green isles of this archipelago are definitely on that list of must sees.
The Italian Chapel
Also a popular excursion on the ‘mainland’ is the well-promoted Italian Chapel, beautifully crafted from a Nissen hut by Italian prisoners-of-war during World War II.
More Orkney Must-Sees
There is plenty more to potentially tick off your list, including the wonderful St Magnus Cathedral in the capital Kirkwall, also the oldest stone houses in northern Europe – 2800-3700BC – away to the north on the island of Papa Westray (Papay). They are even older than the more famous Skara Brae Neolithic settlement. There are good inter-island ferry and air links. Overall, allow at the very least two nights on Orkney mainland, and longer if you add in Hoy or any of the other islands.
If you have longer, then explore the islands north of the Orkney mainland such as North Ronaldsay. You can stay at the North Ronaldsay bird observatory, and discover the famous North Ronaldsay sheep. It is also worth spending a day exploring the amazing archaeological sites on Rousay, which is a short hop from the Orkney mainland. These islands will give a great northern perspective. After a few days here, you want to turn the map upside-down.